Technical Articles

  • Fast and reliable C and S determination with elemental analyzers - a useful addition to XRF

    Part of the production process of high quality cement is quality control of the raw materials as well as the intermediate and finished products. At each production stage samples are taken, processed and analyzed to determine the chemical composition of the material. For the fast, accurate and reliable determination of carbon and sulfur elemental analyzers using combustion technology are a useful addition to XRF analyzers. Apart from size reduction no further sample preparation is needed for analyzing a sample with an elemental analyzer. In contrast to XRF analysis the element content of carbon and sulfur can be measured from the ppm range up to 100 % and the results are usually obtained within 60 to 120 seconds.
  • Elemental Analysis of Metal Powders and Metal Parts Produced by Additive Manufacturing

    Additive manufacturing is becoming an increasingly established production technology. However, as it is still new, the required process steps have not been uniformly defined yet. There are, for example, no industry-wide standards describing the quality control process. Among the metal powders used for additive manufacturing are different types of steel and titanium. To check the quality and purity of these raw materials, suitable processes need to be implemented. The content of various “foreign” elements, for example, should be closely monitored to ensure a high-quality end product.
  • Effective Quality Control of Steel and Iron Products with Combustion Analysis

    The element concentration of carbon (C), sulfur (S), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) in iron products, such as steel, have a significant influence on material properties like ductility, brittleness, or hardness. Hence, reliable determination of the C, H, N, S, O contents is a routine quality control task in steel and iron production. This article explores the application fields and advantages of elemental analyzers, which are also known as combustion analyzers, in the steel industry.
  • Quality control of coal: The influence of sample preparation on elemental analysis results

    The most common types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite) are distinguished by their different chemical and physical properties. The calorific value of coal can be determined by analyzing its carbon content, for example with combustion analyzers. In addition, efficient management of the desulfurization plant requires control of the sulfur content. Compared to the large amount of coal a typical laboratory sample consists of - a 10 liter bucket or even more - the sample volume required for analysis is fairly low, only approx. 1 g. The standard DIN 51701 defines the sample amount to be tested as this relates to the particle size: The bigger the particles are, the more sample material is required.
  • Quality control of cement

    Elemental analysers based on combustion technology are a useful addition to XRF analysis for the quality control of cement and related products, ensuring fast, precise and reliable determination of carbon and sulphur. With its offering of analyzers using resistance or induction furnaces or both, ELTRA covers a wide range of applications for C and S determination in organic and inorganic samples. The product range is ideally suited to the variety of analytical applications in a cement plant.
  • Quality Control of Coal with Elemental Analyzers

    Coal is one of the most important fossil fuels. In 2012, the global stone coal output was about 6.6 billion metric tons [1]. A huge amount of the worldwide traded stone coal is mined in China, USA, Russia and India. Compared to the large amount of mined coal the required sample volume for the characterization of coal, varying from a few mg up to 1 gram, seems unbelievably small. The characterization of coal is important for its quality assessment and further use. Depending on the product quality, coal is suitable for coking, steel production or electrical power generation. This article takes a look at the chemical background of proximate and ultimate coal analysis and how these parameters are measured with ELTRA’s combustion and thermogravimetric analyzers.
  • Standard-compliant element analysis of silicon carbide and mixtures containing silicon carbide with combustion analyzers

    Elemental analyzers are important tools for quality control of a wide range of products. A variety of matrices, such as ceramics, coal, steel or soil, can be analyzed for their element concentrations with different types of instruments. The product range of Eltra GmbH, located near Düsseldorf, Germany, comprises analyzers for C, H, N, S, O and thermogravimetry which allow for the standard-compliant determination of carbon in various chemical bondings, as well as oxygen and nitrogen in SiC and in materials containing SiC. The requirements which have to be fulfilled for a standard-compliant analysis may, however, vary greatly, depending on the desired parameters.
  • Sample prep and analysis of secondary fuels

    With ever increasing socio-economic and geo-political demands, the use of secondary fuels in cement manufacture is a well-established practice for reducing both costs and CO2 emissions. The depletion of resources, combined with an increasing demand for primary fuels such as oil, gas or coal, make it paramount for energy consuming industries to search for alternative energy sources.